Trump's mass deportation idea was tried in the 1930s
PRESS This 1932 photo from the Los Angeles Herald Examiner Collection of the
Los Angeles Public Library shows hundreds of Mexicans at a Los Angeles train
station awaiting deportation to Mexico.
ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. >> Republican presidential candidate
Donald Trump's call for mass deportation of millions of immigrants living in
the U.S. illegally, as well as their American-born children, bears similarities
to a large-scale removal that many Mexican-American families faced 85 years
During the Great Depression, counties
and cities in the American Southwest and Midwest forced Mexican immigrants and
their families to leave the U.S. over concerns they were taking jobs away from
whites despite their legal right to stay.
The result: Around 500,000 to 1 million
Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans were pushed out of the country during
the 1930s repatriation, as the removal is sometimes called.
During that time, immigrants were
rounded up and sent to Mexico, sometimes in public places and often without
formal proceedings. Others, scared under the threat of violence, left
About 60 percent of those who left were
American citizens, according to various studies on the 1930s repatriation.
Later testimonies show families lost most of their possessions and some family
members died trying to return. Neighborhoods in cities such as Houston, San
Antonio and Los Angeles became empty.
The impact of the experience on Latinos
remains evident today, experts and advocates say.
"It set the tone for later
deportations," said Francisco Balderrama, a Chicano studies professor at
California State University, Los Angeles.
Two weeks ago, Trump said that, if
elected president, he would expand deportations and end "birthright
citizenship" for children born to immigrants who are here illegally. Under
his plan, American-born children of immigrants also would be deported with
their parents, and Mexico would be asked to help build a wall along the
"They're illegal," Trump said
of U.S.-born children of people living in the country illegally. "You
either have a country or not."
Amid his comments on immigration, polls
show negative impressions of Trump among Latinos. A Gallup poll released Aug.
24 found that Hispanics were more likely to give Trump unfavorable ratings than
favorable ones by 51 percentage points.
Some immigrant advocates pointed to the
removal of prominent Latino journalist Jorge Ramos from an Iowa press
conference last week as a metaphor for the candidate's desire to remove Latinos
from the United States.
"Mr. Trump should heed the
following warning: Our Latino and immigrant communities are not going to forget
the way he has treated them," the Washington, D.C.-based Fair Immigration
Reform Movement said in a statement.
Ramos, an anchor for Univision, was
escorted out by a Trump aide after Ramos, who had criticized Trump previously,
tried to question Trump about his immigration plan. Trump interrupted Ramos,
saying he hadn't been called on, and ultimately told Ramos, "Go back to
Ramos was saying, "You cannot
deport 11 million people," as he was escorted away. He was later allowed
Trump has provided few details on how
his proposed deportation effort would be carried out. The conservative-leaning
American Action Forum concluded in a report it would cost between $400 billion
to $600 billion and take 20 years to remove an estimated 11.2 million
immigrants living in the country illegally.
The large-scale deportation he
envisions would be impractical to enact, due to the extent to which Mexican
immigrants have integrated into U.S. society, said Columbia University history
professor Mae Ngai.
U.S.-born children of immigrants have
been automatically considered American citizens since the adoption of the
Constitution's 14th Amendment in 1868. A Supreme Court ruling in 1898 halted
previous attempts to limit the birthright of Chinese-American citizens after
the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act.
The ruling upheld the clause for all
U.S.-born children, Ngai said, and there have been no successful challenges to
the clause since.
In the 1930s, Balderrama said,
officials skirted the issue of birthright citizenship by saying they did not
want to break up families.
"But they did break up families
and many children never saw their parents again," said Balderrama,
co-author of a book about Mexican repatriation in the 1930s with the late
historian Raymond Rodriguez, who testified before a California state committee
about seeing his father for the last time at age 10, before the father left for
That legacy lingers in songs, often
played on Spanish-language radio stations, that allude to mass deportations and
separation of loved ones, said Lilia Soto, an American studies professor at the
University of Wyoming.
For example, the lyrics to "Ice El
Hielo," by the Los Angeles-band La Santa Cecilia, speak of a community
afraid that federal agents about to arrive and launch deportations raids at any
moment. The ballad "Volver, Volver," sung by Mexican ranchera
performer Vicente "Chente" Fernandez, speaks of someone vowing to
return to a lover despite all obstacles.
"They're about families being
apart," Soto said. "The lyrics are all indirectly linked to this
By: Rachael Rettner Published: 08/26/2015 11:00 AM EDT on LiveScience
A man in the United Kingdom recently made headlines when he had surgery to
get a so-called "bionic penis." But experts say the man actually
received a penile implant — a relatively common device typically used to treat
men with erectile dysfunction.
The man, a 43-year-old from Edinburgh named Mohammed Abad, was hit by a car
when he was 6 years old, and lost his penis and one testicle as a result of the
to the Daily Mail. Over the last three years, Abad has undergone a number
of operations to place a replacement penis on his body, which can become erect
with a push of a button.
The device consists of two tubes that are connected to a
"reservoir" of fluid, as well as a pump. When a man with this device
presses the button, the pump pushes the fluid (in this case, water) from the
reservoir into the tubes, inflating them and giving the appearance of an
erection. In Abad's case, the tubes were covered with a graft of skin taken
from the arm, the Daily Mail said.
Although Abad's device has been dubbed "bionic," Dr. Elizabeth
Kavaler, a urologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, said, "It's
not a 'bionic penis'; it's a penile implant. We do this all the time."
Indeed, a 2015 studyof more than 1.7 million men with erectile dysfunction who used Medicare
between 2001 and 2010 found that about 53,000 of them had undergone surgery for
a penile implant.
Penile implants are used for men with erectile
dysfunction, which can include men who have had surgery to remove their
prostate after prostate cancer, and men who have experienced trauma to their
pelvis and penis, Kavaler said.
The implant does not help men reach orgasm or ejaculate, and cannot change a
man's ability to feel sexual sensations if this has been lost, Kavaler said.
The device only helps with erections, which can allow for penetration during
sex, she said.
Abad said his "ultimate goal" is to have kids, "which would
be a miracle itself," The
However, Kavaler said that, because the device doesn't help with ejaculation,
it can't help men who are not able to ejaculate to get a woman pregnant. And
even men who can ejaculate may not have enough viable sperm to cause pregnancy
But if a man has even a few viable sperm, he may be able to have children
vitro fertilization, Kavaler said.
Eggs with whitish yolks, laid by
hens fed with Japanese rice, are attracting attention in Japan amid growing
public consciousness about food safety and the government’s efforts to boost
The color of an egg yolk reflects
the color of what the hen that laid it was fed.
Rice-fed hens lay eggs with yolks
that are close to white, in contrast to the yellow yolks of eggs from chickens
given feed that mainly comprises imported corn.
Some believe that eggs with whitish
yolks may spread widely across Japan, backed by the government’s support for
rice production for livestock feed, as part of measures to increase the
country’s feed and food self-sufficiency rate.
Demand for rice as a staple food is
falling by around 80,000 tons every year. In response, the agriculture ministry
is promoting a policy of maintaining rice paddies by encouraging production of
rice as livestock feed. It has set a production target of 1.1 million tons of
such rice in fiscal 2025, up sharply from the 110,000 tons of rice set aside
for that purpose in fiscal 2013.
Takeuchi poultry farm in the town of
Otofuke, Hokkaido, raises its hens with feed that is 99.8 percent locally
produced — 68 percent of which is rice grown in Hokkaido.
The eggs are called Kometsuya, a
portmanteau of kome (rice) and tsuya (luster). Sales manager of
the farm, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, says naturally sweet Kometsuya eggs are gradually
The farm’s annual usage of rice for
chicken feed was 80 tons in 2011, the year it was launched, and this year,
marking the product’s fifth year, it aims to raise the figure to 170 tons.
The Tokiwa agricultural cooperative
for poultry farming, located in the town Fujisaki, Aomori Prefecture, in
northeastern Japan, is shipping Kometama eggs, from chickens that are
pasture-raised on mixed feed, 68 percent of which is rice.
Kometama sales from January to July
this year rose 13 percent from the same period last year. As the poultry that
produces Kometama eggs live a relatively less stressful life compared with that
experienced by chickens reared in cages, their eggs taste good and are
receiving positive feedback from consumers, an official from the cooperative
In the Hokkaido Dosanko Plaza shop,
an antenna store promoting products from Hokkaido in Tokyo’s Chiyoda Ward,
sales of Kometsuya in July increased 40 percent from the year before. Fifty-one
packages of Kometsuya, each containing six eggs and priced at ¥432, including
tax, have been sold, according to the shop.
Many of the purchasers of the eggs
are women in their 40s to 60s, who picked them up for better food safety and as
part of dietary education for their children or grandchildren, said an official
from the shop.
“In the not-too-distant future,
white sunny-side ups will be part of the daily cuisine for Japanese,” the
official added. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This is Shinji’s recipe for bokashi, the traditional home
made fertilizer Japanese organic farmers use: 94 K rice bran, 46 K chicken
manure, 40 K oilseed cakes, 10K oyster shells. 300 cc molasses. 300 cc EM
(Effective Microorganisms), 20 liters water
Shinji mixes all the ingredients in a vat, similar to one he
used for chicken feed, then stores the mix in thick paper bags, with a plastic
layer between the inner and outer layers of paper, for 2 – 3 weeks to allow
fermentation. The final product smells like yeast.
When I visited Teikei (Japanese CSA)
farms in Japan eight years ago, I noticed that all of the chickens were kept in
large pens. The farmers I spoke to said they did not have enough land to allow
their chickens to range freely or to use chicken tractors. Hayashi Shiganori,
an organic farmer near Tokyo, told me that he provides domestic feed for his
chickens because he fears that any corn or soybeans imported from the US might
be GMO. In designing his ration, he looked to traditional Japanese practices
using a mixture of sea products and grains like millet that grow better than
corn in their wet conditions. The farmer who started the very first Teikei in
the early 1970’s, Yoshinori Kaneko feeds his chickens a mix of ground barley,
rice and wheat waste. At the Uozumi family farm to the north of Tokyo, Michio
and Michiko feed their chickens a combination of wheat, oyster shells, sake
waste and rice bran.
Upon hearing the theme for this
issue, I emailed Shinji Hashimoto, a Teikei farmer in Ichijima, near Kobe, and
this is what he had to say: "We have not found the solution for organic
livestock and most of the free range chicken growers in Japan rely for their
feed on imported so-called GM free and Post Harvest Application (Pesticide)
corn. There are some interesting experiments on a small scale growing rice for
livestock feed. The climate in Japan is humid and it is difficult to grow corn
which prefers dry weather. Of course, the area of cropland is also limited in
small islands with many steep mountains. In the northern part of Japan, farmers
have started growing a rice variety that grows faster and has a good harvest
for livestock feed instead of using high flavor Kosihikari rice, the most
popular blend among Japanese customers. Rice has been grown regionally to feed
local chicken and chicken dung has been recycled for fertilization. The only
problems are its price and the color of the yolk. The price of a 10-egg packet
has to be 800 yen while conventional eggs sell for only 100 yen meaning this
egg price is 8 times higher. These egg have been sold at a special department
store. The yolk is rather light yellow while many costumers expect a deep
yellowish color in natural grown eggs and corn brings the deep color. The
Teikei group, Tukaishute, in Kyoto, is doing the same experiment. I tasted one
but those eggs are not satisfactory. Rice has fewer calories than corn, so a
different recipe is necessary. I think it is a good alternative to corn and
opens the chance to bring local feed production and consumption by livestock
growers in the future. I also think governmental support will be necessary for
success to fairly compete with international market pricing."
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