Tuesday, May 16, 2017

Picasso Exhibition in New York

Picasso’s Print Partnerships

An exhibition highlights some unsung collaborators; dark themes, splashy color

Pablo Picasso’s print ‘Luncheon on the Grass, After Manet’ (1968). Pablo Picasso’s print ‘Luncheon on the Grass, After Manet’ (1968). Photo: 2017 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society, New York 
In his seven decades of steady output, Pablo Picasso got a crucial assist in his art-making from two major groups of people. Foremost were his muses, the wives and lovers who filled up his life and canvasses and have long been recognized as a key influence. But a second, much less acknowledged set of partners has been lurking just out of view—his printers. An exhibit in New England should bring them newfound attention.

“Picasso: Encounters,” which opens June 4, will feature prized versions of Picasso’s most admired prints and bring their producers out of obscurity. Featuring loans from New York’s Museum of Modern Art and Paris’s Picasso Museum, the exhibition at the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute in Williamstown, Mass., covers the early 1900s to 1970, three years before the artist’s death at 91. 

By some measures, Picasso’s printers had a higher standing in his life than his muses, says Jay Clarke, the exhibition’s curator. Picasso “treated women terribly,” but “he had respectful and collaborative relationships with his printers. He needed their expertise.”

From left, Picasso, printer Jacques Frélaut and painter Édouard Pignon in  Cannes, France, in 1961. 
From left, Picasso, printer Jacques Frélaut and painter Édouard Pignon in Cannes, France, in 1961. Photo: Edward Quinn/2017 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society, New York 
Museums often neglect to mention the names of printers, but that won’t be the case in Williamstown, says Ms. Clarke. The museum will include explanatory texts featuring their names.

That will include Eugène Delâtre, who produced the earliest print in the 38-work exhibition, the haunting 1904 etching “The Frugal Repast.” The young Picasso, who had recently moved to Paris, closed out his dark-themed Blue Period with this graphic depiction of two wastrels, possibly on the fringes of Paris bohemia. At the time, Ms. Clarke says, “Picasso was interested in outsiders.” Delâtre (1864–1938) was a printer and artist whose starry list of collaborators included Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Wary of interference, Delâtre kept Picasso out of the actual printing process. 

Picasso’s ‘The Frugal Repast’ (1904).  
Picasso’s ‘The Frugal Repast’ (1904). Photo: 2017 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society, New York 
But by the 1930s, Picasso’s relationship with his printers had changed, and his printmaking seemed to reach its artistic peak. He was working with the Paris-based printer Roger Lacourière (1892–1966), who also collaborated with Picasso’s friend and rival Henri Matisse. Lacourière, who became Picasso’s friend, let him experiment with techniques like sugar-lift aquatint, in which an ink thickened with a sugar-and-gum solution helped the artist to create a more detailed final image.

In 1937, Picasso was completing his now legendary black-and-white painting “Guernica,” a mural-sized homage to the Basque town bombed by Nazi and fascist Italian planes during the Spanish Civil War. Around that time, art historian and curator Anne Wagner says, he drew a weeping woman—an image that then seemed to take over his art, appearing in everything from paintings to prints. With Lacourière, Picasso made four versions of “The Weeping Woman”—a howling depiction of grief and pain, and, in its first and largest version, his single best-known print.

The crying woman in all her iterations is often regarded as a de facto portrait of Dora Maar, the surrealist photographer who carried on a tempestuous affair with the artist from the mid-1930s until the mid-1940s. In the print, Maar’s distinctive mane of slick black hair and claw-like fingernails frame a face convulsed with suffering. The Williamstown exhibition contrasts three versions of the print with a 1937 painting of Maar, this time looking strong and seductive.

Among print collectors, “The Weeping Woman” is one of the most prized Picassos. Séverine Nackers, head of prints at Sotheby’s London, says collectors have traditionally paid most for its first version, along with “The Frugal Repast” and another 1930s Lacourière collaboration, “Minotauromachia.” In 2014, “The Weeping Woman I” set a record for a print by a 20th-century artist, selling at a Sotheby’s London auction for more than $5.2 million (at exchange rates of that time), nearly double its high presale estimate.

‘The Weeping Woman I’ (1937).  
‘The Weeping Woman I’ (1937). Photo: 2017 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society, New York 
By the 1950s, Picasso was filling his prints with color. Now based in the south of France, he had discovered linocuts—linoleum plates that are much easier to cut than wood. As the Williamstown exhibition shows, Picasso collaborated with local printer Hidalgo Arnéra (1922-2007) on splashy works like 1958’s “Portrait of a Young Girl, After Cranach the Younger, II” in which a German Renaissance painting gets a makeover.

More Picasso exhibitions are on this summer across the Atlantic. At Madrid’s Reina Sofia Museum, “Pity and Terror: Picasso’s Path to Guernica” traces the artist’s development from the 1920s. In London’s Gagosian Gallery, an exhibition emphasizes Picasso’s lifelong fascination with bullfighting and bulls. More than a third of the 122 works are prints, including all seven variations of “Minotauromachia.” That surreal work shows a Minotaur—the monster of ancient Greek legend with the head of a bull and body of a man—menacingly intruding on a beach gathering.

While those 1930s prints are highly sought after, many collectors don’t stop there. “I just love the progression” from the early 1900s to the late color prints, says New York collector Nelson Blitz Jr., and several he owns will join the Clark exhibition.

‘Minotauromachia’ (1935, printed 1936). ‘Minotauromachia’ (1935, printed 1936). Photo: 2017 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society, New York

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